Answer to question (5):
(Four items, the student is to choose only three of them of three marks each 3 × 3 = 9)
A) The conditions of scientific observation:
1- The observer should be as secure as possible.
2- The observer should be ready and fit for it.
3- The phenomenon should be repeatable, for the phenomenon that happens only
once cannot be subjected to accurate observation. The observer has to be able to
make sure that it is repeatable to be able to revise and correct whatever mistakes
he might have made.
4- The phenomenon should be observed from all aspects, because overlooking any
them may lead to misinterpreting the phenomenon.
5- Objectivity in observation, i.e. the researcher has to observe the phenomenon as
occurs in reality and record everything honestly and impartially.
6- Using the equipment and devices that make the observation accurate. One case in
point is the use of microscopes and telescopes when the bare eyes are unable to
see the phenomenon under study. But the researcher has to make sure that the
equipment and devices are in good shape.
(Three conditions are enough.)
B) The validity of mathematical theories depends on the validity of premises
within the mathematical pattern:
If the premises are valid, we have to accept the validity of what results from them
logically in accordance with rules of deduction. If we ask mathematician to prove
any of his theories, he would return, directly or in directly, to the first premises. By
indirect is meant that if a mathematician has proved a theory it would become one
of the theories that he uses to prove his subsequent theory.
C) The difficulties a person encounters when attempting a critical analysis of any
- The first difficulty is that there are no predetermined definitive rules that writers
or speakers follow for whatever they produce. So, it is not easy to identify
premises and other lines of argumentation in a written text or a speech. So,
identifying a line of argument has to do with identifying an author's intention and
thematic signals, and this needs a lot of practice.
- The second difficulty is that some authors tend to leave textual gaps making
unable to identify premises so they have to fall upon their own mental
resources. This is why each issue has to be clearly defined by the reader and the
argument as a whole be put explicitly.
(Other logical answers are acceptable)
D) The main issue of t h e text is: p rotecti ng th e environment from pollution –
protecting the environment protects us from diseases – environmentalists.
(Any other main issue expressing the subject is acceptable)
P.1 Protecting the environment from pollution decreases infections.
P.2 That leads to decreasing of death rates.
P.3 That also improves the individual's health.
C. Developing the Society of Environment Friends is inevitable.
(N.B. The premises order or number is not a must)