Knowledge is power ,

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منذ 6 سنوات
اجابة  1   مشاهدة  101

A) Explain three conditions of scientific observation in the traditional

inductive method.

B) The validity of mathematical theories depends on the validity of

premises within the mathematical pattern. Prove that.

C) A person encounters difficulties when attempting a critical analysis

of any text. Discuss.

D) Read the following text, then respond to the tasks required:

'Researchers assert that protecting the environment from pollution

decreases diseases which in turn decreases mortality rate and

improves the health condition of people. Accordingly, establishing

the society of environment protection friends is a must.'

1- Identify the main issue of the text.

2- From the text, infer a typical logical argument according to the

line of deduction.

اجابة (1)

Answer to question (5):

(Four items, the student is to choose only three of them of three marks each 3 × 3 = 9)

A) The conditions of scientific observation:

1- The observer should be as secure as possible.

2- The observer should be ready and fit for it.

3- The phenomenon should be repeatable, for the phenomenon that happens only

once cannot be subjected to accurate observation. The observer has to be able to

make sure that it is repeatable to be able to revise and correct whatever mistakes

he might have made.

4- The phenomenon should be observed from all aspects, because overlooking any


them may lead to misinterpreting the phenomenon.

5- Objectivity in observation, i.e. the researcher has to observe the phenomenon as


occurs in reality and record everything honestly and impartially.

6- Using the equipment and devices that make the observation accurate. One case in

point is the use of microscopes and telescopes when the bare eyes are unable to

see the phenomenon under study. But the researcher has to make sure that the

equipment and devices are in good shape.

(Three conditions are enough.)

B) The validity of mathematical theories depends on the validity of premises

within the mathematical pattern:

If the premises are valid, we have to accept the validity of what results from them

logically in accordance with rules of deduction. If we ask mathematician to prove

any of his theories, he would return, directly or in directly, to the first premises. By

indirect is meant that if a mathematician has proved a theory it would become one

of the theories that he uses to prove his subsequent theory.

C) The difficulties a person encounters when attempting a critical analysis of any


- The first difficulty is that there are no predetermined definitive rules that writers

or speakers follow for whatever they produce. So, it is not easy to identify

premises and other lines of argumentation in a written text or a speech. So,

identifying a line of argument has to do with identifying an author's intention and

thematic signals, and this needs a lot of practice.

- The second difficulty is that some authors tend to leave textual gaps making


unable to identify premises so they have to fall upon their own mental

resources. This is why each issue has to be clearly defined by the reader and the

argument as a whole be put explicitly.

(Other logical answers are acceptable)

D) The main issue of t h e text is: p rotecti ng th e environment from pollution

protecting the environment protects us from diseases environmentalists.

(Any other main issue expressing the subject is acceptable)

P.1 Protecting the environment from pollution decreases infections.

P.2 That leads to decreasing of death rates.

P.3 That also improves the individual's health.

C. Developing the Society of Environment Friends is inevitable.

(2 marks)

(N.B. The premises order or number is not a must)

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