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Elsharkawy
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اجابة  1   مشاهدة  111

A) Define the non-definables in mathematical deduction.

B) The human phenomenon is more sophisticated and intricate than the

physical phenomenon. Illustrate giving an example.

C) Coherence and broadness are two measures of critical thinking.

Prove that.

D) The laws of physical sciences rely on probabilistic weighting.

Analyse the statement.

اجابة (1)

II- Logic

Answer to question (4): (Obligatory)

(The student should answer four items of three marks each. 3 × 4 = 12)

A) The non-definables in mathematical deduction: The are a set of concepts or

propositions that the mathematician takes without a definition to use them in

defining other concepts, for if we insist on defining every word the mathematician

says, we would have limitless definitions because every definition depends on other

words, you would have used other words and so on. So he must take some words

without defining them to define other words.

B) The human phenomenon is more sophisticated and intricate than the physical

phenomenon:

The human phenomena that are studied by the humanities are more sophisticated,

intricate and complicated than those studied by physical sciences. They are much

more difficult to measure and to empirically study than the physical phenomena. For

example, there is a big difference between a scientist studying the impact off

temperature on iron extension, and a researcher studying the influence of school

peers on child behaviour. For in the first case, the scientist can control all the

variables: light, presser, temperature and so on to measure the effect of only one

variable on extension. But in the other case, it is difficult to insulate one factor (i.e.

influence of the peers at school) on a certain child, for there are other factors that

surround him and he was influence by, and they are interacted to the extent that we

cannot define the impact of only one factor separated from the others.

(If the student gave another correct and logical answer, he would take the mark.)

C) Coherence and broadness are two measures of critical thinking:

Firstly, by coherence we mean to what extent the question, the interference, the

argument or the phrase is related to the subject of the argument or problem. One

question that helps in applying this measure is do these questions or ideas shed light

on the subject of the argument? Another is: to what extent do they contribute to the

solutions of the problem? Second, by this measure we mean examining all the

aspects of the problem. These aspects include all the details relevant to the subject.

One question that can help bring the broad aspects of the subject together is: 'Is

there a necessity to include other methods in dealing with the problem?' another is:

'Are there new details to be introduced in the examination of the problem in

question?'

(3 marks for each measure. If the student raised only one logical question to apply its

measure, he would take the full mark.)

D) The laws of physical sciences rely on probabilistic weighting:

Because generalizatio n in the physic al scie nces i nvolves risks for it allows to judge

things the researcher has not experienced or made a subject of research. Therefore is

judgement or the scientific law cannot be certainly true. So, reaching certainty

cannot be achieved by induction and the physical sciences as we may know new

things in the future that can make us change our judgements.

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