Answer to question (4): (Obligatory)
(The student should answer four items of three marks each. 3 × 4 = 12)
A) The non-definables in mathematical deduction: The are a set of concepts or
propositions that the mathematician takes without a definition to use them in
defining other concepts, for if we insist on defining every word the mathematician
says, we would have limitless definitions because every definition depends on other
words, you would have used other words and so on. So he must take some words
without defining them to define other words.
B) The human phenomenon is more sophisticated and intricate than the physical
The human phenomena that are studied by the humanities are more sophisticated,
intricate and complicated than those studied by physical sciences. They are much
more difficult to measure and to empirically study than the physical phenomena. For
example, there is a big difference between a scientist studying the impact off
temperature on iron extension, and a researcher studying the influence of school
peers on child behaviour. For in the first case, the scientist can control all the
variables: light, presser, temperature and so on to measure the effect of only one
variable on extension. But in the other case, it is difficult to insulate one factor (i.e.
influence of the peers at school) on a certain child, for there are other factors that
surround him and he was influence by, and they are interacted to the extent that we
cannot define the impact of only one factor separated from the others.
(If the student gave another correct and logical answer, he would take the mark.)
C) Coherence and broadness are two measures of critical thinking:
Firstly, by coherence we mean to what extent the question, the interference, the
argument or the phrase is related to the subject of the argument or problem. One
question that helps in applying this measure is do these questions or ideas shed light
on the subject of the argument? Another is: to what extent do they contribute to the
solutions of the problem? Second, by this measure we mean examining all the
aspects of the problem. These aspects include all the details relevant to the subject.
One question that can help bring the broad aspects of the subject together is: 'Is
there a necessity to include other methods in dealing with the problem?' another is:
'Are there new details to be introduced in the examination of the problem in
(3 marks for each measure. If the student raised only one logical question to apply its
measure, he would take the full mark.)
D) The laws of physical sciences rely on probabilistic weighting:
Because generalizatio n in the physic al scie nces i nvolves risks for it allows to judge
things the researcher has not experienced or made a subject of research. Therefore is
judgement or the scientific law cannot be certainly true. So, reaching certainty
cannot be achieved by induction and the physical sciences as we may know new
things in the future that can make us change our judgements.