Knowledge is power ,

sharing knowledge is powerful

Elsharkawy
..
منذ 5 سنوات
اجابة  1   مشاهدة  102

they are true or false giving reasons: (9 marks)

A) The discovery of inevitability in biology is one of the factors that

contributed to the emergence of modern Determinism.

B) To 'Rousseau', democracy is a means for social reform.

C) Ethics is a normative discipline to the Positivist Communitarians.

D) To 'Al-Farabi', virtue lies midway between two extremes, both of

them are vilified.

اجابة (1)

Answer to question (3):

(Four items, the student is to choose only three of them of three marks each 3 × 3 = 9)

(1 mark for the tick and two marks for giving reason)

A) The discovery of inevitability in biology is one of the factors that contributed

to the emergence of modern Determinism. (True)

The reason: scientists wrongly thought that the living body with its essential cells

is not subjected to any inevitable constrains at all, but the recent scientific

discoveries, specially after the emergence of organic chemistry proved that the

living cell is an inevitable result of many chemical reactions following certain laws.

B) To Rousseau, Democracy is a means of social reform. (True)

The reason: Democracy is one of the two means to reform society in Rousseau's

view, and it is related to the political aspect. It aimed at attaining freedom for all the

people through the democratic system, because dictatorship robs individuals of

their freedom as the minority dominates the majority while democracy gives them

their freedom because the governing body came according to a social contract

among the individuals in the society. Thus, these individuals will have the right to

displace this governing body if it contradicts the will of people. However, Rousseau

believes that Democracy in its proper and complete meaning has never and will

never be achieved. But man tries to get closer to it and seeks to achieve its aims as

much as possible. And, in addition to the advantages of Democracy, there are some

disadvantages such as changing the governments rapidly and frequently, and

vulnerability to civil wars. Despite these advantages, Rousseau prefers Democracy

and says: 'I prefer freedom with danger to slavery with peace.'

C) Ethics is a normative discipline to the Positivists Communitarians. (False)

The reason: because turning to the use of the scientific in studying the ethical

phenomenon as it is in society means that ethics became an experimental positivist

science like the rest of the physical sciences, taking into consideration some of the

qualitative differences such as experimentation in sociology is not empirical.

Instead, it is interpretation of social phenomena, a life observation of its

development and an attempt to unravel the laws that directs them. It is the same

also in the Positivist ethics for the experimentation in it is not empirical either, but

it depends on planned observations of various phenomena in society to discover

their impact on shaping the ethical values in their societal conditions. The analysis

of these ethical values leads us to discover their social origins as social phenomena.

For ethics does not appear if man is alone on a deserted island, but it appears in the

community and according to the societal conditions. So we have to study it as a

positivist science.

D) To Al-Farabi, virtue lies midway between two extremes, both of are vilified.

(True)

The reason: virtue lies midway between two extremes, both of them are vilified

such as excessiveness and negligence. The good deed is midway between these two

extremes. Courage, for example, is midway between recklessness and cowardice,

اضف اجابتك