Answer to question (3):
(Four items, the student is to choose only three of them of three marks each 3 × 3 = 9)
(1 mark for the tick and two marks for giving reason)
A) The discovery of inevitability in biology is one of the factors that contributed
to the emergence of modern Determinism. (True)
The reason: scientists wrongly thought that the living body with its essential cells
is not subjected to any inevitable constrains at all, but the recent scientific
discoveries, specially after the emergence of organic chemistry proved that the
living cell is an inevitable result of many chemical reactions following certain laws.
B) To Rousseau, Democracy is a means of social reform. (True)
The reason: Democracy is one of the two means to reform society in Rousseau's
view, and it is related to the political aspect. It aimed at attaining freedom for all the
people through the democratic system, because dictatorship robs individuals of
their freedom as the minority dominates the majority while democracy gives them
their freedom because the governing body came according to a social contract
among the individuals in the society. Thus, these individuals will have the right to
displace this governing body if it contradicts the will of people. However, Rousseau
believes that Democracy in its proper and complete meaning has never and will
never be achieved. But man tries to get closer to it and seeks to achieve its aims as
much as possible. And, in addition to the advantages of Democracy, there are some
disadvantages such as changing the governments rapidly and frequently, and
vulnerability to civil wars. Despite these advantages, Rousseau prefers Democracy
and says: 'I prefer freedom with danger to slavery with peace.'
C) Ethics is a normative discipline to the Positivists Communitarians. (False)
The reason: because turning to the use of the scientific in studying the ethical
phenomenon as it is in society means that ethics became an experimental positivist
science like the rest of the physical sciences, taking into consideration some of the
qualitative differences such as experimentation in sociology is not empirical.
Instead, it is interpretation of social phenomena, a life observation of its
development and an attempt to unravel the laws that directs them. It is the same
also in the Positivist ethics for the experimentation in it is not empirical either, but
it depends on planned observations of various phenomena in society to discover
their impact on shaping the ethical values in their societal conditions. The analysis
of these ethical values leads us to discover their social origins as social phenomena.
For ethics does not appear if man is alone on a deserted island, but it appears in the
community and according to the societal conditions. So we have to study it as a
D) To Al-Farabi, virtue lies midway between two extremes, both of are vilified.
The reason: virtue lies midway between two extremes, both of them are vilified
such as excessiveness and negligence. The good deed is midway between these two
extremes. Courage, for example, is midway between recklessness and cowardice,