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اجابة  1   مشاهدة  93

A) Define the relationship between freedom and responsibility in

'Sartre's' view.

B) To 'Kant', duty is the necessity of doing the act in respect for the

law of reason in itself. Illustrate giving an example.

C) Pleasure or utility is the moral ultimate good for Utilitarians.


D) To 'Al-Farabi' happiness is the end of every moral act. Discuss.

اجابة (1)

I- Philosophy

Answer to question (1): (Obligatory)

(The student should answer four items of three marks each. 4 × 3= 12)

A) The relationship between freedom and responsibility in Sartre's view:

If a man is free to choose his actions by himself and define his identity by his free

will, he must bear all the consequences of his actions that he chose by his own free

will, because without bearing responsibility. The absolute freedom of an individual

will lead to total chaos and mass destruction to the society. Sartre asserts that by

saying: 'If the existence is prior to identity, then, man becomes responsible for what

he is.' So, the first existentialist implication of this premise is that it makes each

individual as a trustee of himself, and completely responsible for his own actions,

i.e. absolute freedom requires absolute responsibility.

B) Duty in Kant's view is the necessity to do the act in respect for the law of

reason in itself:

Duty here is a synonym of law, and the law that is meant here is reason with its

absolute principle. Everything happens according to definite laws compatible with

the nature of these things. If man is by nature rational, then the laws that he should

follow in his life and morals must be according to principles of reason. And if so,

the moral law will itself be the rule of reason. For example, when a man tells the

truth for its own sake and be honest for honesty's sake.

(Two marks for explanation and one mark for the example.)

(Any other reasonable and correct example is accepted.)

C) Pleasure or utility is the moral ultimate good for Utilitarians:

The ultimate end for morals is to reach the utmost good, that's according to all views

which admitted that this utmost good is the happiness that we always pursue to

achieve. But the conflict among philosophers appears when it comes to defining the

meaning of happiness, for it, according to some views, is of a rational nature and to

others it takes the form of self-sacrifice, etc. however, happiness here is every act

that gives it's doer the utmost pleasure which is utility at the same time, i.e. pleasure

is utility. utilitarians have different views about pleasure whether it is sensory or

mental. But, what is meant by pleasure here is the pleasure of senses, although some

of the utilitarians exert some effort later to make part of the pleasure rather mental.

(Other logical answers are acceptable)

D) To AL Farabi, happiness is the end of every moral act:

In AL Farabi's view, happiness can be realised when the soul reaches its perfection

by getting away from the immediate sensual pleasures and the physical needs. It can

do that by doing some acts willingly, there are two types of these actions:

1- Physical actions: that hinder the individual from attaining the happiness. So

they are bad actions and they are considered misdeeds

2- Mental actions: only these are considered good deeds but they are not good as

means in themselves. They are good to reach happiness, so happiness is the

good that is required for its own sake.

(Other logical answers are acceptable)

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